The slow build-up of cholesterol plaque within the artery wall can cause the artery to narrow, reducing blood flow. Sudden changes in the plaque may cause angina  or may cause a heart attack. A narrowing of a coronary artery is called a coronary artery stenosis.

Where a narrowing is identified in a coronary artery during a coronary angiogram, the cardiologist may treat the lesion using a stent (sine alloy tube). This is known as Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), which means ways of opening narrowings in coronary arteries using fine tubes called catheters introduced from the wrist. Narrowings are treated with balloons and stents that reduce the chance of renarrowing. PCI is also known as angioplasty or stenting.

Vasculature of the Heart
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You will be given medication to help you relax, but you will be awake during the procedure so that you can follow instructions from the doctor and nurses.
The doctor will administer freezing to your groin or your wrist.
A thin, flexible tube (balloon catheter) with a small inflatable balloon on the end is inserted. If a stent is being used, it will be placed over the balloon before the catheter is inserted.
X-ray pictures will be taken and a special dye will be injected through the catheter to identify the narrowed sections or blockages in the arteries in your heart.
The balloon catheter is guided to the narrowed section of the artery.
The balloon is inflated for a short period of time to push the plaque back against the wall of the artery and implant the stent.
Once the balloon has been deflated and removed, the stent stays in place, permanently holding the blood vessel open and improving blood flow.
It is not unusual to experience some chest pain. Inform the nurse if you experience any discomfort or have concerns.
The time for the procedure in the lab is usually 30 to 90 minutes.


Coronary angiography employs x-ray images to look at the blood vessels in your heart and discover whether the blood flow is restricted. The build-up of cholesterol plaque on the artery walls may reduce the blood flow, leading to angina or a heart attack. We offer friendly care, reasonable prices and short wait times.


A constricted coronary artery causes coronary artery stenosis. Dr Krys Milburn can pinpoint the narrowing via an angiogram and determine whether the heart pumps blood through the aortic valve to the body efficiently or if calcium build-up has narrowed the valve opening, impeding circulation.

  • Aortic stenosis does not always produce noticeable symptoms. Many patients only experience breathing problems, a rapid heartbeat, light-headedness or fainting, and chest pain once their blood flow has become significantly reduced. Other symptoms may include swollen feet or ankles, difficulty walking even short distances, needing to sleep sitting up, insomnia, and incapacity as regards normal activities due to fatigue, resulting in reduced activity levels.

  • Dr Milburn can treat the concern with minimal invasion. He inserts a stent to open the lesion with fine tubes or balloon catheters inserted from the wrist or groin. The treatment reduces the probability of the artery narrowing again, should he locate a constriction through angiography.

  • Because you remain awake throughout - to follow the instructions of the doctor and nurses - the procedure includes relaxing medication. The cardiologist will administer freezing to the insertion area. He introduces a thin, flexible tube with a small inflatable balloon at the end inside the artery. If he uses a stent, he positions it over the balloon before inserting the catheter.

  • Your cardiologist introduces a dye through the line, enabling him to see the blockages and narrowed sections in the arteries. He also takes x-rays. He guides the tube to the reduced area and inflates the balloon for a short period to thrust the plaque back against the artery wall. He then implants the stent.

Once the doctor has deflated and removed the balloon, the stent stays in place to hold the blood vessel open permanently, improving the blood flow. The procedure takes between 30 and 90 minutes.



See your doctor immediately if you experience pressure, discomfort, or a feeling of fullness or burning in your chest. Our surgeon will determine whether you have stable, variant, or unstable angina pectoris. The last-mentioned may lead to a heart attack.

  • Reduced blood flow to your heart muscle causes the problem. Your heart muscle needs oxygen to stay alive, and your blood carries the oxygen. If it does not get enough, it causes ischemia, also known as angina.

  • Stable angina commonly occurs when you exert yourself. It happens when your heart works harder than usual while doing exercises or walking up a hill. It lasts five minutes or less, and you may have had similar pains in the past. It clears up when you rest or take your medication.

  • Variant angina is rarer and is caused by a spasm in the heart arteries, reducing blood flow temporarily. It can be severe and often happens when you are at rest. Taking your meds should provide relief.

  • Unstable angina may strike unexpectedly and is different to what you usually experience. It lasts longer - possibly 30 minutes or more - is sharp and may not recede when you rest or take your medication. This type may signal a heart attack.


Angina symptoms in women are frequently different

to those men experience. Apart from chest pain, women may also suffer from stabbing pain (rather than the pressure in the chest), soreness in the back, jaw, or neck, abdominal pain, nausea, and shortness of breath. Women who suffer these signs ought to seek treatment at once.


You need to find out what is causing your pain and get the appropriate treatment. Make an appointment for a thorough assessment and problem identification. Dr Krys has 14 years of industry experience and specializes in complex interventions in the Canterbury region and South Island.

Contact us for excellent, professional treatment.